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Archived from the original on 10 March Arnett; Michael Charles Thomas eds. Passat VIII. The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended inafter more than 60 years. Https://gswitch.co/online-casino-spiele-kostenlos-ohne-anmeldung/titanic-alte-frau.php engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage. The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly Bettle the driver and passenger. Bettle beetles excavate tunnels in https://gswitch.co/casino-online-kostenlos-spielen/spiele-demon-master-video-slots-online.php trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. Beetle Sport. The Type 32 was similar in design to the Type 12, but it had a flat-four engine.

Much of the essential equipment had already been moved to underground bunkers for protection, which let production resume quickly after hostilities ended.

Due to gasoline shortages late in the war, a few " Holzbrenner " Beetles were built, powered by pyrolysis gas producers located under the front hood.

In occupied Germany, the Allies followed the Morgenthau plan to remove all German war potential by complete or partial pastoralization.

As part of this, in the Industrial plans for Germany , the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain were set out.

Mass production of civilian VW cars did not start until post-war occupation. The Volkswagen factory was handed over by the Americans to British control in ; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Britain.

In March , Herbert Hoover helped change policy by stating. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a " pastoral state ".

It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,, people out of it. Hirst was ordered to take control of the heavily bombed factory, which the Americans had captured.

His first task was to remove an unexploded bomb that had fallen through the roof and lodged itself between some pieces of irreplaceable production equipment; if the bomb had exploded, the Beetle's fate would have been sealed.

After initially building mostly Beetles for the British military, in production transitioned to purely civilian Beetles, for the first time featuring chromed bumpers, hubcaps, and body and running board trim.

Following the British Army-led restart of production and Hirst's establishment of sales network and exports to Netherlands, former Opel manager and formerly a detractor of the Volkswagen Heinz Nordhoff was appointed director of the Volkswagen factory in The engine fires up immediately without a choke.

It has tolerable road-handling and is economical to maintain. Although a small car, the engine has great elasticity and gave the feeling of better output than its small nominal size.

There were other, less-numerous models, as well. The Hebmüller cabriolet officially Type 14A , a sporty two-seater, was built between and ; it numbered The Type 18A , a fixed-top cabriolet, was produced by Austro-Tatra as a police and fire unit; were assembled between January and March On 17 February Beetle No.

Though extremely successful in the s, experiencing its greatest sales growth in North America between and , the Beetle was increasingly faced with stiff competition from more modern designs globally.

The Japanese had refined rear-wheel-drive, water-cooled, front-engine, small cars including the Datsun and Toyota Corona , whose sales in the North American market grew rapidly at the expense of Volkswagen in the late s.

Honda introduced the N , based on the space-efficient transverse-engine, front-wheel-drive layout of the original Austin Mini , to the North American market in late , and upgraded the model to the Honda Civic in The Japanese "big three" would soon dominate compact auto sales in North America.

In Ford introduced its Pinto , which had some market impact as a low cost alternative in the wake of the drop of the US Dollar against the Deutsche Mark that same year.

As the s came to a close, Volkswagen faced increasingly stiff competition from European cars as well. The Beetle was faced with competition from new designs like the Fiat and Renault 5 , and more robust designs based on the Austin Mini layout such as the Superminis.

German competitors, Ford and Opel also enjoyed strong sales of modern smaller cars like the Ford Escort and Opel Kadett.

Volkswagen's attempts to boost the power of their air-cooled motor to meet the demands of higher highway speeds in the late s, then comply with new pollution control regulations, caused problems for reliability and fuel efficiency that impaired the reputation of the aging design.

Safety issues with the Beetle came under increasing scrutiny, culminating in the release of a rather scathing report.

None of these models, aimed at more upscale markets, achieved the level of success of the Beetle. The over-reliance on a single model, now in decline, meant that Volkswagen was in financial crisis by It needed German government funding to produce the Beetle's replacement.

Production lines at Wolfsburg switched to the new water-cooled, front-engined, front-wheel-drive Golf designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in , sold in North America at the time as the "Rabbit".

The Golf eventually became Volkswagen's most successful model since the Beetle. It was periodically redesigned over its lifetime, with only a few components carried over between generations, entering its seventh generation in ; the Beetle had only minor refinements of its original design.

The Golf did not kill Beetle production, nor did the smaller Polo which was launched a year later.

Production of the Beetle continued in smaller numbers at other German factories until 19 January , when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico: markets where low operating cost was an important factor.

After this shift in production, sales in Europe did not stop, but became very low. Beetle sedans were produced for U.

The last Beetle was produced in Puebla , Mexico, in July Production in Brazil ended in , then started again in and continued until The Beetle outlasted most other cars which had adopted the rear-engine, air-cooled layout such as those by Subaru , Fiat , and General Motors.

Porsche's series which originally used some Volkswagen-sourced parts, continued to use the classic rear-engine layout which later became water cooled in the Porsche series, which remains competitive in the third decade of the 21st century.

By , over 21 million Type 1s had been produced, but by , annual production had dropped to 30, from a peak of 1. Each car included the 1.

A mariachi band serenaded production of the last car. In Mexico, there was an advertising campaign as a goodbye for the Beetle.

In one of the ads was a very small parking space on the street, and many big cars tried to use it, but could not.

Another depicted the rear end of a Beetle the year Volkswagen was established in Mexico in the left side of the ad, reading " Erase una vez Other ads also had the same nostalgic tone.

In , Volkswagen prototyped a 1. Volkswagen made only two of these naturally aspirated, air-cooled boxer diesel engines, and installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Beetle featured a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder, boxer engine in a two-door bodywork featuring a flat front windscreen, accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat—and offering a coefficient of drag of 0.

The bodywork attached with eighteen bolts to its nearly flat platform chassis which featured a central structural tunnel.

Front and rear suspension featured torsion bars along with front stabilizer bar—providing independent suspension at all wheels. Certain initial features were subsequently revised, including mechanical drum brakes, split-window rear windows, mechanical direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox.

Other features, including its distinctive overall shape, endured. In fact, the Beetle was prized for its seemingly unchanged appearance and "marketed to American consumers as the anti-GM and Ford: 'We do not believe in planned obsolescence.

We don't change a car for the sake of change. Its engine, transmission, and cylinder heads were constructed of light alloy. An engine oil cooler located in the engine fan's shroud ensured optimal engine operating temperature and long engine life, optimized by a thermostat that bypassed the oil cooler when the engine was cold.

Later models featured an automatic choke. Engine intake air passed through a metallic filter, while heavier particles were captured by an oil bath.

After , steering featured a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Indicative of the car's utilitarian design, the interior featured painted metal surfaces, a metal dash consolidating instruments in a single, circular binnacle , adjustable front seats, a fold-down rear seat, optional swing-out rear windows, front windows with pivoting vent windows, heating via air-to-air exchange manifolds operating off the engine's heat, and a windshield washer system that eschewed the complexity and cost of an additional electric pump and instead received its pressurization from the car's spare tire located in the front luggage compartment which was accordingly overinflated to accommodate the washer function.

Throughout its production, VW marketed the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. From and almost exclusively in Europe , [63] VW offered an optional version of the Saxomat semi-automatic transmission : a regular 4-speed manual transaxle coupled to an electromagnetic clutch with a centrifugal clutch used for idle.

Subsequently, beginning in in Europe and in the United States , VW offered an optional semi-automatic transmission marketed as Automatic Stick Shift and also called AutoStick , [ citation needed ] which was a 3-speed manual coupled to an electro-pneumatic clutch and torque converter.

It was in that Wilhelm Karmann first bought a VW Beetle sedan and converted it into a four-seated convertible.

The convertible was more than a Beetle with a folding top. To compensate for the strength lost in removing the roof, the sills were reinforced with welded U-channel rails, a transverse beam was fitted below the front edge of the rear seat cushion, and the side cowl-panels below the instrument panel were double-wall.

In addition, the lower corners of the door apertures had welded-in curved gussets, and the doors had secondary alignment wedges at the B-pillar.

The top was cabriolet-style with a full inner headliner hiding the folding mechanism and crossbars.

The rear window was tempered safety glass, and after , heated. Due to the thickness of the top, it remained quite tall when folded.

To enable the driver to see over the lowered top, the inside rearview was mounted on an offset pivot.

The convertible was generally more lavishly equipped than the sedan with dual rear ashtrays, twin map pockets, a visor vanity mirror on the passenger side, rear stone shields, and through , wheel trim rings.

Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of After a number of stylistic and technical alterations made to the Karmann cabriolet, [66] corresponding to the many changes VW made to the Beetle throughout its history , the last of , cabriolets came off the production line on 10 January During this period, myriad changes were made throughout the vehicle beginning with the availability of hydraulic brakes and a folding fabric sunroof in The rear window of the VW Beetle evolved from a divided or "split" oval, to a singular oval.

The change occurred between October and March The brake light function was transferred to new heart-shaped lamps located in the top of the taillight housings.

In , the separate brake lights were discontinued and were combined into a new larger taillight housing.

The traditional VW semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicator lamps for North America.

For , the Beetle received what would become one of its more distinctive features, a set of twin chrome tailpipes.

Models for North America gained taller bumper guards and tubular overrider bars. For , the Beetle received a revised instrument panel, and a larger rectangular rear window replaced the previous oval design.

For , significant technical advances occurred in the form of a new engine and transmission. The single-barrel Solex carburetor received an electric automatic choke and the transmission was now synchronized on all forward gears.

The traditional semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicators worldwide.

For , the Beetle received a mechanical fuel level gauge in place of the former fuel tap. The Standard model continued without a gas gauge until the end of the model year.

At the rear, larger tail lights were introduced incorporating a separate amber turn signal section to meet new European standards these turn signals remained red in the US market until The former hand-pump style windscreen washer was replaced by a new design using compressed air.

The largest change to date for the Beetle was in the majority of the body stampings were revised, which allowed for significantly larger windows.

The result was a more open, airy, modern look. Models so equipped carried a "" badge on the engine lid. The cc engine was standard for North America.

North America received the engine as standard equipment, but did not receive front disc brakes.

These models were identified by a "Volkswagen" badge on the engine lid. The rear suspension was significantly revised and included a widened track, softer torsion bars and the addition of a unique Z-configuration equalizing torsion spring.

The clutch disc also increased in size and changes were made to the flywheel. New equipment included a driver's armrest on the door and locking buttons on both doors.

Safety improvements included two-speed windscreen wipers , reversing lights in some markets , and a driver's side mirror.

In accord with the newly enacted US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , North American models received a dual-circuit brake system, the clear glass headlamp covers were deleted; the headlamps were brought forward to the leading edge of the front fenders, and the sealed-beam units were exposed and surrounded by chrome bezels.

In the rest of the world markets the model retained the older headlights. Another oddity of the North American market Beetle is the rear bumper overriders towel rails — the overriders have a different shape than the older models besides the one-year only engine decklid.

The most noticeable of which were the new larger, higher mounted C-section bumpers. At the rear, new larger taillamps were adopted and were able to accommodate reversing lamps, which were previously separate bumper-mounted units.

Beetles worldwide received the '67 North American style vertical headlamp placement, but with replaceable-bulb headlamps compliant with ECE regulations rather than the US sealed beams.

Other improvements were a new outside gas filler with spring-loaded flap, eliminating the need to open the trunk to refuel.

The fuel gauge was integrated with the speedometer and was now electrically actuated rather than cable-operated. A number of safety improvements were made in order to comply with new American safety regulations: these included trigger-operated outside door handles, a secondary front hood latch, collapsing steering column, soft vent window latches, rotary glove compartment latch and instrument panel knobs labeled with pictographs.

US models received a padded instrument panel that was optional in other markets. To meet North American head restraint requirements, VW developed the industry's first high-back bucket seat.

A new 3-speed semi-automatic transmission with torque converter and vacuum-operated clutch became available mid-production year.

The semi-automatic models received a vastly improved semi-trailing-arm rear suspension also known as "independent rear suspension" although the earlier swing axle Beetles were also independent and eliminated the need for the equalizing torsion spring.

This new rear suspension layout would eventually become an option on later models. Beetles equipped with the automatic were identified with a "VW Automatic" badge on the engine lid and a matching decal in the rear window.

For , the only exterior change was the fuel filler flap no longer had a finger indentation due to a new interior-mounted fuel door release.

In other markets, manual transmission models retained a swing axle independent suspension which would continue until the end of German Beetle production.

In , a new "L" Luxus Package was introduced including, among other items, twin map pockets, dual rear ashtrays, full carpeting, a passenger-side visor vanity mirror, and rubber bumper moldings.

There were two Beetles for the first time in , the familiar standard Beetle and a new, larger version, different from the windscreen forward.

All Beetles received an engine upgrade: the optional cc engine was replaced by a cc with twin-port cylinder heads and a larger, relocated oil cooler.

The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly at the driver and passenger.

For the first time the system was a flow-through design with crescent-shaped air exits fitted behind the rear quarter windows.

Airflow could be increased via an optional 2-speed fan. The standard Beetle was now badged as the VW ; when equipped with the engine, it was badged S, to avoided confusion with the Type 3, which wore VW badges.

The new suspension layout allowed the spare tire to be positioned flat under the trunk floor. Although the car had to be lengthened slightly to accomplish this, it allowed a reduction in turning radius.

To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel [ clarification needed ] was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward.

From the windscreen back the big Beetle was identical to its smaller progenitor, except for having the also new semi-trailing arm rear suspension as standard equipment.

Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package. The convertible was now based on the body.

While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle.

With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price.

An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced. The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf.

A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.

In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator.

The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels.

Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo on the bottom spoke.

In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout.

A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS. Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5.

Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel.

The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: based on the standard Beetle, it was available only in Phoenix Red or Ravenna Green both colors shared with the VW-Porsche with all exterior trim finished in matte black.

A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.

At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface.

To comply with tightening emission standards, the cc engine in Japanese and North American markets received Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, rather than the D-Jetronic system formerly used in the VW Type 3 and Type 4.

The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.

The received rack and pinion steering. To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle.

The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.

The convertible was offered in a "triple white" Champagne Edition in Alpine White with white top and interior with the padded deluxe steering wheel, tiger maple wood-grain dash trim and 4.

Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. For , a new Champagne 2nd Edition convertible was launched, available in blue or red metallic paint with white leatherette interior.

Features included the 4. Approximately 1, were produced. In , VW offered an Epilogue Edition of the convertible in triple black with features similar to the Champagne Edition.

This would be the last year of convertible production worldwide as well as the final year for the Beetle in the US and Canada.

Volkswagen began its involvement in Ireland when in , Motor Distributors Limited, founded by Stephen O'Flaherty secured the franchise for the country at that year's Paris Motor Show.

The vehicles were assembled in a former tram depot at Shelbourne Road in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for Ballsbridge Motors which is still a Volkswagen dealer.

The first Volkswagen ever assembled outside Germany was built here. In J. Jack Gilder had been fascinated by both the design and engineering of the Beetle when he came across one in Belgium during the war.

The Type 1 was introduced to Japan in , and was imported by Yanase dealerships in Japan. Its exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations , which helped sales.

Several Japanese vehicles were introduced after the Beetle was sold in Japan, using an air-cooled engine and rear mounting of the engine, such as the Subaru , or an engine installed in the front, like the Honda N , the Suzuki Fronte , and the Mitsubishi Minica.

German production of the Beetle took place initially at the parent Wolfsburg plant until the Golf's introduction in , later expanding to the newer Emden and Hanover plants.

Volkswagen's takeover of Auto Union in saw 60, cars per year [83] being produced on the Audi assembly lines in Ingolstadt until The last German made cars were assembled at Emden in , after which the Puebla, Mexico plant became the principal source of Beetle production.

Brazilian assembly of the Beetle, where it is called " Fusca ", started in , with parts imported from Germany.

In production resumed and continued to The Brazilian version retained the —64 body style Europe and U. This body style was also produced in Mexico until The and s had the era taillights and headlights, fuel tank, but fitted with the up raised bumpers.

Brazilian CKD kits were shipped to Nigeria between and where Beetles were locally assembled. The Brazilian-produced versions have been sold in neighboring South American nations bordering Brazil, including Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru.

In Brazil, the Type 1 never received electronic fuel injection, instead retaining carburetors one or two one-barrels throughout its entire life, although the carburetion differs from engines of different years and specification.

The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended in , after more than 60 years. It was last used in the Brazilian version of the VW Bus , called the "Kombi", and was replaced by a 1.

Volkswagen do Brasil engaged in some string pulling in the early sixties when a law requiring taxis to have four doors and five seats was being considered.

After proving that the average taxi fare only carried 1. Mexican production began in because of agreements with companies such as Chrysler in Mexico and the Studebaker-Packard Corporation which assembled cars imported in CKD form.

In , they began to be locally produced. These models have the larger windshield, rear window, door and quarter glass starting in ; and the rear window from to German built models was used on the Mexican models from to , when it was replaced with the larger rear window used on and later German built Beetles.

This version, after the mids, saw little change with the incorporation of electronic ignition in , an anti-theft alarm system in , a catalytic converter in as required by law , as well as electronic Digifant fuel injection , hydraulic valve lifters, and a spin-on oil filter in The front turn signals were located in the bumper instead of the Beetle's traditional placement on top of the front fenders from the model year on, as they had been on German Beetles sold in Europe from onwards.

Starting in , the Mexican Beetle included front disc brakes, an alternator instead of a generator, and front automatic seat belts.

During the model year, the chrome moldings disappeared leaving body colored bumpers and black moldings instead on some models.

By the start of the model year, exterior chrome or matt moldings were dropped altogether and Volkswagen de Mexico VWdM dropped the Sedan's flow-through ventilation system with all its fittings, notably the exterior crescent-shaped vents behind the rear side windows the same year.

These two versions were sold until mid Independent importers continued to supply several major countries, including Germany, France, and the UK until the end of production in Devoted fans of the car even discovered a way to circumvent US safety regulations by placing more recently manufactured Mexican Beetles on the floorpans of earlier, US-registered cars.

The Mexican Beetle along with its Brazilian counterpart was on the US DOT's Department of Transportation hot list of grey market imports after as the vehicle did not meet safety regulations.

Some of the Mexican Beetles have been registered in the United States since the NHTSA amendment granting the year cutoff where it and its Brazilian counterpart including the T2C can be legally registered in any of the 50 states this means a or earlier Mexican Beetle as of can be registered under the current NHTSA year cutoff exemption.

The end of production in Mexico can be attributed primarily to Mexican political measures: the Beetles no longer met emission standards for Mexico City, in which the ubiquitous Beetles were used as taxicabs; and the government outlawed their use as taxicabs because of rising crime rates, requiring only four-door vehicles be used.

The last Vocho taxis in Mexico City were retired at the end of In the late s consumers strongly preferred more modern cars such as the Mexican Chevy , the Nissan Tsuru , and the Volkswagen Pointer and Lupo.

However, demand for the Beetle was relatively high, especially in the s, with the workforce increasing at the start of the decade.

The price of the base model without even a radio was pegged with the official minimum wage, by an agreement between the company and the government.

Official importation of the Volkswagen Beetle into Australia began in , with local assembly operations commencing the following year.

Volkswagen Australia was formed in , and by locally produced body panels were being used for the first time.

When the European Type One body received the larger windows for the model year, Volkswagen Australia decided not to update, but continued to produce the smaller-windowed bodies, with unique features to the Australian versions.

This was due to the limited size of the market and the costs involved in retooling. In , Volkswagen Australia released its own locally designed utilitarian version of the Type 1, the Volkswagen Country Buggy or Type The last Australian-assembled Beetle was produced in July with assembly of other models ending in February Several features from the Super Beetle were grafted onto the South African Beetle S, such as curved windshield, new dashboard, and larger taillights, while retaining the Beetle chassis and mechanicals.

The model was introduced to South Africa in ; it was marketed as the cheapest 1. In late , the sporty SP Beetle arrived — this version received bright red, yellow, or silver paint with black stripes, a front spoiler, wide tyres, and a more powerful engine with twin carburettors and a freer flowing exhaust.

Also new for were rubber bumper strips for all s, and the same taillights with backup lights were now fitted across the range.

The bigger-engined model was then phased out around August , leaving only the model in production. A number of separate cars and designs have each claimed to have been the original "influencers" of Porsche's Volkswagen concept.

Hitler saw the car in at an auto show. These small cars were designed according to the patents by Josef Ganz and featured transverse, two-stroke, two-cylinder engines mounted in front of the rear axle.

In , Tatra built the V prototype, which had an air-cooled flat-twin engine mounted at the rear. Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras.

It also featured a similar central structural tunnel found in the Beetle. Just before the start of the Second World War, Tatra had ten legal claims filed against VW for infringement of patents.

On Sept 28, , Roy Fedden, most known by his participation in the Bristol Single Sleeve valve engine research, headed by Harry Ricardo , applied for a British patent 'Improvements related to road vehicles', granted GB, 24 July , describing a 2-door, rear-engined car, identical in arrangement and look to VW 'Käfer'.

Espacenet - Original document. It has also been pointed out that the VW Beetle bears a striking resemblance to John Tjaarda 's design for a streamlined, rear-engined car, that he created working for Briggs Manufacturing Company.

The Beetle has been modified for use in drag racing ; [] its rearward RR layout weight distribution keeps the weight over the rear wheels, maximizing grip off the starting line.

The car's weight is reduced for a full competition drag Beetle, further improving the grip and also the power-to-weight ratio.

To prevent this, "wheelie bars" were added. The Beetle is also used as the basis for the Formula Vee open-wheel racing category: specifically, the front suspension crossmember assembly the shock absorber mounts are sometimes removed, depending on regulations in the class , and the engine and transaxle assembly usually the earlier swing-axle type, not the later double-jointed axle.

In this configuration, FV would become one of the most popular entry-level motorsports classes of its time.

Volkswagen Beetle-style bodies are fitted to space frame racing chassis, and are used in the Uniroyal Fun Cup , which includes the longest continuous motor-race in the world, the 25 Hours of Spa.

It is an affordable entry-level series that gentleman drivers race. Especially the Austrian sole distributor Porsche Salzburg now Porsche Austria seriously entered the Volkswagen in local and European contests in the s and early s.

Victories were achieved in on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class 5th overall , Austrian championship , January Rallye for overall and class.

Rally of minutes for overall 2nd 1st in class. The fuel crisis, along with the arrival of the Volkswagen Golf Rabbit , put an end to the days of unofficially supported rallying in All vehicles either used for training or actual racing were sold off to privateers, many kept racing with noticeable results until the early s.

Beetles were used in the Trans-Am Series for the two-litre class from to and again in A Volkswagen won its class in the Armstrong in Australia in both and These can be seen in the documentary movie Dust to Glory.

The general concept is to take any Beetle, of any age or model from the 40s through to s, and with minimal restrictions, allowing parts from various years to be interchanged, and of course the cars being prepared to the MSA safety requirements cage, restraints, fire system etc.

Essentially the cars must be air-cooled Beetles any age and parts can be swapped between years and models , with a inch x 6-inch max wheel size with a control tyre.

Engines must be based on a Type 1 case, with no electronic fuel injection or ignition and no forced induction, with an unlimited capacity.

Other regulations apply. Volkswagen has joined up with eClassics to allow beetle owners to convert their car to electric.

The battery will have a total capacity of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In the stages of the Upper Triassic, alga-feeding insects such as Triaplidae and Hydrophilidae begin to appear, alongside predatory water beetles.

The first weevils, including the Obrienidae , appear alongside the first rove beetles Staphylinidae , which closely resemble recent species.

The first discoveries from North America made in the Wellington formation of Oklahoma were published in and As a consequence of the Permian—Triassic extinction event , the fossil record of insects is scant, including beetles from the Lower Triassic.

At the Babiy Kamen site in the Kuznetsk Basin, numerous beetle fossils were discovered, including entire specimens of the infraorders Archostemata e.

Ademosynidae, Schizocoleidae , Adephaga e. Hydrophilidae, Byrrhidae, Elateroidea. The Chrysomeloidea diversified around the same time, feeding on a wide array of plant hosts from cycads and conifers to angiosperms.

Most recent plant-eating beetles feed on flowering plants or angiosperms, whose success contributed to a doubling of plant-eating species during the Middle Jurassic.

However, the increase of the number of beetle families during the Cretaceous does not correlate with the increase of the number of angiosperm species.

Curculionoidea and click beetles e. Elateroidea appeared. The first jewel beetles e. Buprestidae are present, but they remained rare until the Cretaceous.

There are more than important fossil sites from the Jurassic, the majority in Eastern Europe and North Asia. In North America there are only a few sites with fossil records of insects from the Jurassic, namely the shell limestone deposits in the Hartford basin, the Deerfield basin and the Newark basin.

The Cretaceous saw the fragmenting of the southern landmass, with the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean and the isolation of New Zealand, while South America, Antarctica, and Australia grew more distant.

Predatory ground beetles Carabidae and rove beetles Staphylinidae began to distribute into different patterns; the Carabidae predominantly occurred in the warm regions, while the Staphylinidae and click beetles Elateridae preferred temperate climates.

Likewise, predatory species of Cleroidea and Cucujoidea hunted their prey under the bark of trees together with the jewel beetles Buprestidae.

The diversity of jewel beetles increased rapidly, as they were the primary consumers of wood, [38] while longhorn beetles Cerambycidae were rather rare: their diversity increased only towards the end of the Upper Cretaceous.

Whirligig beetles Gyrinidae were moderately diverse, although other early beetles e. Dytiscidae were less, with the most widespread being the species of Coptoclavidae , which preyed on aquatic fly larvae.

Many fossil sites worldwide contain beetles from the Cretaceous. Most are in Europe and Asia and belong to the temperate climate zone during the Cretaceous.

In Spain, important sites are near Montsec and Las Hoyas. Beetle fossils are abundant in the Cenozoic; by the Quaternary up to 1.

The large oscillations in climate during the Quaternary caused beetles to change their geographic distributions so much that current location gives little clue to the biogeographical history of a species.

It is evident that geographic isolation of populations must often have been broken as insects moved under the influence of changing climate, causing mixing of gene pools, rapid evolution, and extinctions, especially in middle latitudes.

The very large number of beetle species poses special problems for classification. Some families contain tens of thousands of species, and need to be divided into subfamilies and tribes.

This immense number led the evolutionary biologist J. Haldane to quip, when some theologians asked him what could be inferred about the mind of the Creator from the works of His Creation, "An inordinate fondness for beetles".

In these insects, the testes are tubular and the first abdominal sternum a plate of the exoskeleton is divided by the hind coxae the basal joints of the beetle's legs.

Their mouthparts are characteristic in lacking galeae and having a mobile tooth on their left mandible.

The consistency of beetle morphology , in particular their possession of elytra, has long suggested that Coleoptera is monophyletic , though there have been doubts about the arrangement of the suborders , namely the Adephaga , Archostemata , Myxophaga and Polyphaga within that clade.

Molecular phylogenetic analysis confirms that the Coleoptera are monophyletic. Duane McKenna et al.

They split the Adephaga into 2 clades, Hydradephaga and Geadephaga, broke up the Cucujoidea into 3 clades, and placed the Lymexyloidea within the Tenebrionoidea.

The Polyphaga appear to date from the Triassic. Most extant beetle families appear to have arisen in the Cretaceous. Dates of origin of major groups are shown in italics in millions of years ago mya.

Archostemata mya Myxophaga mya Hydradephaga e. Dytiscidae diving beetles. Geadephaga e. Carabidae ground beetles.

Staphylinidae mya , rove beetles. Scarabaeoidea mya , scarabs, stag beetles, etc. Hydrophiloidea , water scavenger beetles. Histeroidea , clown beetles.

Dascilloidea Buprestoidea , jewel beetles. Byrrhoidea , pill and turtle beetles, etc. Elateroidea , click and soldier beetles, fireflies.

Bostrichoidea , deathwatch, powderpost and skin beetles. Coccinelloidea , ladybirds or lady beetles. Cleroidea , checkered beetles and allies.

Cucujoidea Chrysomelidae , leaf beetles. Cerambycidae , longhorn beetles. Curculionoidea , weevils. Beetles are generally characterized by a particularly hard exoskeleton and hard forewings elytra not usable for flying.

Almost all beetles have mandibles that move in a horizontal plane. The mouthparts are rarely suctorial, though they are sometimes reduced; the maxillae always bear palps.

The antennae usually have 11 or fewer segments, except in some groups like the Cerambycidae longhorn beetles and the Rhipiceridae cicada parasite beetles.

The coxae of the legs are usually located recessed within a coxal cavity. The genitalic structures are telescoped into the last abdominal segment in all extant beetles.

Beetle larvae can often be confused with those of other endopterygote groups. This design provides armored defenses while maintaining flexibility.

The general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform, although specific organs and appendages vary greatly in appearance and function between the many families in the order.

Like all insects, beetles' bodies are divided into three sections: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. In many species accurate identification can only be made by examination of the unique male genitalic structures.

The head, having mouthparts projecting forward or sometimes downturned, is usually heavily sclerotized and is sometimes very large.

A few Longhorn beetles Cerambycidae and weevils as well as some fireflies Rhagophthalmidae [60] have divided eyes, while many have eyes that are notched, and a few have ocelli , small, simple eyes usually farther back on the head on the vertex ; these are more common in larvae than in adults.

Beetle antennae are primarily organs of sensory perception and can detect motion, odour and chemical substances, [63] but may also be used to physically feel a beetle's environment.

Beetle families may use antennae in different ways. For example, when moving quickly, tiger beetles may not be able to see very well and instead hold their antennae rigidly in front of them in order to avoid obstacles.

Some aquatic beetle species may use antennae for gathering air and passing it under the body whilst submerged. Equally, some families use antennae during mating, and a few species use them for defence.

In the cerambycid Onychocerus albitarsis , the antennae have venom injecting structures used in defence, which is unique among arthropods.

Antennae may be clubbed , threadlike , angled , shaped like a string of beads , comb-like either on one side or both, bipectinate , or toothed.

The physical variation of antennae is important for the identification of many beetle groups. The Curculionidae have elbowed or geniculate antennae.

Feather like flabellate antennae are a restricted form found in the Rhipiceridae and a few other families.

The Silphidae have a capitate antennae with a spherical head at the tip. The Scarabaeidae typically have lamellate antennae with the terminal segments extended into long flat structures stacked together.

The Carabidae typically have thread-like antennae. The antennae arises between the eye and the mandibles and in the Tenebrionidae, the antennae rise in front of a notch that breaks the usually circular outline of the compound eye.

They are segmented and usually consist of 11 parts, the first part is called the scape and the second part is the pedicel.

The other segments are jointly called the flagellum. Beetles have mouthparts like those of grasshoppers. The mandibles appear as large pincers on the front of some beetles.

The mandibles are a pair of hard, often tooth-like structures that move horizontally to grasp, crush, or cut food or enemies see defence , below.

Two pairs of finger-like appendages, the maxillary and labial palpi, are found around the mouth in most beetles, serving to move food into the mouth.

In many species, the mandibles are sexually dimorphic, with those of the males enlarged enormously compared with those of females of the same species.

The thorax is segmented into the two discernible parts, the pro- and pterothorax. The pterothorax is the fused meso- and metathorax, which are commonly separated in other insect species, although flexibly articulate from the prothorax.

When viewed from below, the thorax is that part from which all three pairs of legs and both pairs of wings arise. The abdomen is everything posterior to the thorax.

This further segmentation is usually best seen on the abdomen. The multisegmented legs end in two to five small segments called tarsi.

Like many other insect orders, beetles have claws, usually one pair, on the end of the last tarsal segment of each leg.

While most beetles use their legs for walking, legs have been variously adapted for other uses. Aquatic beetles including the Dytiscidae diving beetles , Haliplidae , and many species of Hydrophilidae , the legs, often the last pair, are modified for swimming, typically with rows of long hairs.

Male diving beetles have suctorial cups on their forelegs that they use to grasp females. Species with such adaptations are found among the scarabs, ground beetles, and clown beetles Histeridae.

The hind legs of some beetles, such as flea beetles within Chrysomelidae and flea weevils within Curculionidae , have enlarged femurs that help them leap.

The forewings of beetles are not used for flight , but form elytra which cover the hind part of the body and protect the hindwings. The elytra are usually hard shell-like structures which must be raised to allow the hind wings to move for flight.

Beetles' flight wings are crossed with veins and are folded after landing, often along these veins, and stored below the elytra. A fold jugum of the membrane at the base of each wing is characteristic.

These include some ground beetles Carabidae and some true weevils Curculionidae , as well as desert- and cave-dwelling species of other families.

Many have the two elytra fused together, forming a solid shield over the abdomen. In a few families, both the ability to fly and the elytra have been lost, as in the glow-worms Phengodidae , where the females resemble larvae throughout their lives.

For example, the tansy beetle walks between habitats despite being physically capable of flight. The abdomen is the section behind the metathorax, made up of a series of rings, each with a hole for breathing and respiration, called a spiracle , composing three different segmented sclerites: the tergum, pleura, and the sternum.

The tergum in almost all species is membranous, or usually soft and concealed by the wings and elytra when not in flight. The pleura are usually small or hidden in some species, with each pleuron having a single spiracle.

The sternum is the most widely visible part of the abdomen, being a more or less sclerotized segment. The abdomen itself does not have any appendages, but some for example, Mordellidae have articulating sternal lobes.

The digestive system of beetles is primarily adapted for a herbivorous diet. Digestion takes place mostly in the anterior midgut , although in predatory groups like the Carabidae , most digestion occurs in the crop by means of midgut enzymes.

In the Elateridae , the larvae are liquid feeders that extraorally digest their food by secreting enzymes. This is followed by the midgut, that varies in dimensions between species, with a large amount of cecum , and the hindgut, with varying lengths.

There are typically four to six Malpighian tubules. The nervous system in beetles contains all the types found in insects, varying between different species, from three thoracic and seven or eight abdominal ganglia which can be distinguished to that in which all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused to form a composite structure.

Like most insects, beetles inhale air, for the oxygen it contains, and exhale carbon dioxide , via a tracheal system.

Air enters the body through spiracles , and circulates within the haemocoel in a system of tracheae and tracheoles, through whose walls the gases can diffuse.

Diving beetles, such as the Dytiscidae , carry a bubble of air with them when they dive. Such a bubble may be contained under the elytra or against the body by specialized hydrophobic hairs.

The bubble covers at least some of the spiracles, permitting air to enter the tracheae. The air that it traps is in contact with oxygenated water, so as the animal's consumption depletes the oxygen in the bubble, more oxygen can diffuse in to replenish it.

Nitrogen is the most plentiful gas in the bubble, and the least soluble, so it constitutes a relatively static component of the bubble and acts as a stable medium for respiratory gases to accumulate in and pass through.

Occasional visits to the surface are sufficient for the beetle to re-establish the constitution of the bubble. Like other insects, beetles have open circulatory systems , based on hemolymph rather than blood.

As in other insects, a segmented tube-like heart is attached to the dorsal wall of the hemocoel. It has paired inlets or ostia at intervals down its length, and circulates the hemolymph from the main cavity of the haemocoel and out through the anterior cavity in the head.

Different glands are specialized for different pheromones to attract mates. Pheromones from species of Rutelinae are produced from epithelial cells lining the inner surface of the apical abdominal segments; amino acid-based pheromones of Melolonthinae are produced from eversible glands on the abdominal apex.

Other species produce different types of pheromones. Dermestids produce esters , and species of Elateridae produce fatty acid-derived aldehydes and acetates.

Light production is highly efficient, by oxidation of luciferin catalyzed by enzymes luciferases in the presence of adenosine triphosphate ATP and oxygen, producing oxyluciferin , carbon dioxide, and light.

Tympanal organs or hearing organs consist of a membrane tympanum stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons, are found in two families.

Both families are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies, with strong evidence indicating they function to detect the presence of bats by their ultrasonic echolocation.

Beetles are members of the superorder Endopterygota , and accordingly most of them undergo complete metamorphosis. The typical form of metamorphosis in beetles passes through four main stages: the egg , the larva , the pupa , and the imago or adult.

The larvae are commonly called grubs and the pupa sometimes is called the chrysalis. In some species, the pupa may be enclosed in a cocoon constructed by the larva towards the end of its final instar.

Some beetles, such as typical members of the families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae , go further, undergoing hypermetamorphosis in which the first instar takes the form of a triungulin.

Some beetles have intricate mating behaviour. Pheromone communication is often important in locating a mate.

Different species use different pheromones. Scarab beetles such as the Rutelinae use pheromones derived from fatty acid synthesis , while other scarabs such as the Melolonthinae use amino acids and terpenoids.

Another way beetles find mates is seen in the fireflies Lampyridae which are bioluminescent , with abdominal light-producing organs.

The males and females engage in a complex dialogue before mating; each species has a unique combination of flight patterns, duration, composition, and intensity of the light produced.

Before mating, males and females may stridulate, or vibrate the objects they are on. In the Meloidae, the male climbs onto the dorsum of the female and strokes his antennae on her head, palps, and antennae.

In Eupompha , the male draws his antennae along his longitudinal vertex. They may not mate at all if they do not perform the precopulatory ritual.

For example, the mating of a Russian population of tansy beetle Chysolina graminis is preceded by an elaborate ritual involving the male tapping the female's eyes, pronotum and antennae with its antennae, which is not evident in the population of this species in the United Kingdom.

Competition can play a part in the mating rituals of species such as burying beetles Nicrophorus , the insects fighting to determine which can mate.

Many male beetles are territorial and fiercely defend their territories from intruding males. In such species, the male often has horns on the head or thorax, making its body length greater than that of a female.

Copulation is generally quick, but in some cases lasts for several hours. During copulation, sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilize the egg.

Essentially all beetles lay eggs, though some myrmecophilous Aleocharinae and some Chrysomelinae which live in mountains or the subarctic are ovoviviparous , laying eggs which hatch almost immediately.

Beetle eggs generally have smooth surfaces and are soft, though the Cupedidae have hard eggs. Eggs vary widely between species: the eggs tend to be small in species with many instars larval stages , and in those that lay large numbers of eggs.

A female may lay from several dozen to several thousand eggs during her lifetime, depending on the extent of parental care.

This ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf, to the parental care provided by scarab beetles , which house, feed and protect their young.

The Attelabidae roll leaves and lay their eggs inside the roll for protection. The larva is usually the principal feeding stage of the beetle life cycle.

Larvae tend to feed voraciously once they emerge from their eggs. Some feed externally on plants, such as those of certain leaf beetles, while others feed within their food sources.

Examples of internal feeders are most Buprestidae and longhorn beetles. The larvae of many beetle families are predatory like the adults ground beetles, ladybirds, rove beetles.

The larval period varies between species, but can be as long as several years. The larvae of skin beetles undergo a degree of reversed development when starved, and later grow back to the previously attained level of maturity.

The cycle can be repeated many times see Biological immortality. Beetle larvae can be differentiated from other insect larvae by their hardened, often darkened heads, the presence of chewing mouthparts, and spiracles along the sides of their bodies.

Like adult beetles, the larvae are varied in appearance, particularly between beetle families. Beetles with somewhat flattened, highly mobile larvae include the ground beetles and rove beetles; their larvae are described as campodeiform.

Some beetle larvae resemble hardened worms with dark head capsules and minute legs. These are elateriform larvae, and are found in the click beetle Elateridae and darkling beetle Tenebrionidae families.

Some elateriform larvae of click beetles are known as wireworms. Beetles in the Scarabaeoidea have short, thick larvae described as scarabaeiform, more commonly known as grubs.

All beetle larvae go through several instars , which are the developmental stages between each moult.

In many species, the larvae simply increase in size with each successive instar as more food is consumed.

In some cases, however, more dramatic changes occur. Among certain beetle families or genera, particularly those that exhibit parasitic lifestyles, the first instar the planidium is highly mobile to search out a host, while the following instars are more sedentary and remain on or within their host.

This is known as hypermetamorphosis ; it occurs in the Meloidae , Micromalthidae , and Ripiphoridae. Its first stage, the triungulin , has longer legs to go in search of the eggs of grasshoppers.

After feeding for a week it moults to the second stage, called the caraboid stage, which resembles the larva of a carabid beetle. In another week it moults and assumes the appearance of a scarabaeid larva — the scarabaeidoid stage.

Its penultimate larval stage is the pseudo-pupa or the coarcate larva, which will overwinter and pupate until the next spring.

The larval period can vary widely. A fungus feeding staphylinid Phanerota fasciata undergoes three moults in 3. Leiodidae completes its larval stage in the fruiting body of slime mold in 2 days and possibly represents the fastest growing beetles.

Dermestid beetles, Trogoderma inclusum can remain in an extended larval state under unfavourable conditions, even reducing their size between moults.

A larva is reported to have survived for 3. As with all endopterygotes, beetle larvae pupate, and from these pupae emerge fully formed, sexually mature adult beetles, or imagos.

Pupae never have mandibles they are adecticous. In most pupae, the appendages are not attached to the body and are said to be exarate ; in a few beetles Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae etc.

Adults have extremely variable lifespans, from weeks to years, depending on the species. It is believed that when furniture or house timbers are infested by beetle larvae, the timber already contained the larvae when it was first sawn up.

A birch bookcase 40 years old released adult Eburia quadrigeminata Cerambycidae , while Buprestis aurulenta and other Buprestidae have been documented as emerging as much as 51 years after manufacture of wooden items.

The elytra allow beetles to both fly and move through confined spaces, doing so by folding the delicate wings under the elytra while not flying, and folding their wings out just before takeoff.

The unfolding and folding of the wings is operated by muscles attached to the wing base; as long as the tension on the radial and cubital veins remains, the wings remain straight.

In some day-flying species for example, Buprestidae , Scarabaeidae , flight does not include large amounts of lifting of the elytra, having the metathorac wings extended under the lateral elytra margins.

Many rove beetles have greatly reduced elytra, and while they are capable of flight, they most often move on the ground: their soft bodies and strong abdominal muscles make them flexible, easily able to wriggle into small cracks.

Aquatic beetles use several techniques for retaining air beneath the water's surface. Diving beetles Dytiscidae hold air between the abdomen and the elytra when diving.

Hydrophilidae have hairs on their under surface that retain a layer of air against their bodies.

Adult crawling water beetles use both their elytra and their hind coxae the basal segment of the back legs in air retention, while whirligig beetles simply carry an air bubble down with them whenever they dive.

Beetles have a variety of ways to communicate, including the use of pheromones. The mountain pine beetle emits a pheromone to attract other beetles to a tree.

The mass of beetles are able to overcome the chemical defenses of the tree. After the tree's defenses have been exhausted, the beetles emit an anti-aggregation pheromone.

This species can stridulate to communicate, [92] but others may use sound to defend themselves when attacked.

Parental care is found in a few families [94] of beetle, perhaps for protection against adverse conditions and predators. Burying beetles are attentive parents, and participate in cooperative care and feeding of their offspring.

Both parents work to bury small animal carcass to serve as a food resource for their young and build a brood chamber around it.

The parents prepare the carcass and protect it from competitors and from early decomposition. After their eggs hatch, the parents keep the larvae clean of fungus and bacteria and help the larvae feed by regurgitating food for them.

Some dung beetles provide parental care, collecting herbivore dung and laying eggs within that food supply, an instance of mass provisioning.

Some species do not leave after this stage, but remain to safeguard their offspring. Most species of beetles do not display parental care behaviors after the eggs have been laid.

Subsociality, where females guard their offspring, is well-documented in two families of Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae and Chrysomelinae.

Eusociality involves cooperative brood care including brood care of offspring from other individuals , overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labour into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

It is one of more than species of wood-boring Ambrosia beetles which distribute the spores of ambrosia fungi. Beetles are able to exploit a wide diversity of food sources available in their many habitats.

Some are omnivores , eating both plants and animals. Other beetles are highly specialized in their diet. Many species of leaf beetles, longhorn beetles, and weevils are very host-specific, feeding on only a single species of plant.

Ground beetles and rove beetles Staphylinidae , among others, are primarily carnivorous and catch and consume many other arthropods and small prey, such as earthworms and snails.

While most predatory beetles are generalists, a few species have more specific prey requirements or preferences.

Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species. This can range from dung , which is consumed by coprophagous species such as certain scarab beetles in the Scarabaeidae , to dead animals, which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles , Silphidae.

Some beetles found in dung and carrion are in fact predatory. These include members of the Histeridae and Silphidae , preying on the larvae of coprophagous and necrophagous insects.

Some beetles have special mycangia , structures for the transport of fungal spores. Beetles, both adults and larvae, are the prey of many animal predators including mammals from bats to rodents , birds , lizards , amphibians , fishes , dragonflies , robberflies , reduviid bugs , ants , other beetles, and spiders.

These include camouflage and mimicry against predators that hunt by sight, toxicity, and defensive behaviour.

Camouflage is common and widespread among beetle families, especially those that feed on wood or vegetation, such as leaf beetles Chrysomelidae, which are often green and weevils.

In some species, sculpturing or various coloured scales or hairs cause beetles such as the avocado weevil Heilipus apiatus to resemble bird dung or other inedible objects.

Some longhorn beetles Cerambycidae are effective Batesian mimics of wasps. Beetles may combine coloration with behavioural mimicry, acting like the wasps they already closely resemble.

Many other beetles, including ladybirds , blister beetles , and lycid beetles secrete distasteful or toxic substances to make them unpalatable or poisonous, and are often aposematic , where bright or contrasting coloration warn off predators; many beetles and other insects mimic these chemically protected species.

Chemical defense is important in some species, usually being advertised by bright aposematic colours.

Some Tenebrionidae use their posture for releasing noxious chemicals to warn off predators.

Chemical defences may serve purposes other than just protection from vertebrates, such as protection from a wide range of microbes. Some species sequester chemicals from the plants they feed on, incorporating them into their own defenses.

Other species have special glands to produce deterrent chemicals. The defensive glands of carabid ground beetles produce a variety of hydrocarbons , aldehydes , phenols , quinones , esters , and acids released from an opening at the end of the abdomen.

African carabid beetles for example, Anthia and Thermophilum — Thermophilum is sometimes included within Anthia employ the same chemicals as ants: formic acid.

The gland is made of two containing chambers, one for hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide , the other holding hydrogen peroxide and catalase enzymes.

The oxygen propels the noxious chemical spray as a jet that can be aimed accurately at predators. Large ground-dwelling beetles such as Carabidae , the rhinoceros beetle and the longhorn beetles defend themselves using strong mandibles , or heavily sclerotised armored spines or horns to deter or fight off predators.

Some combine it with thanatosis , in which they close up their appendages and "play dead". A few species of beetles are ectoparasitic on mammals.

One such species, Platypsyllus castoris , parasitises beavers Castor spp. This beetle lives as a parasite both as a larva and as an adult, feeding on epidermal tissue and possibly on skin secretions and wound exudates.

They are strikingly flattened dorsoventrally, no doubt as an adaptation for slipping between the beavers' hairs.

They are wingless and eyeless, as are many other ectoparasites. Beetle-pollinated flowers are usually large, greenish or off-white in color, and heavily scented.

Scents may be spicy, fruity, or similar to decaying organic material. Beetles were most likely the first insects to pollinate flowers.

The plants' ovaries are usually well protected from the biting mouthparts of their pollinators.

The beetle families that habitually pollinate flowers are the Buprestidae , Cantharidae , Cerambycidae , Cleridae , Dermestidae , Lycidae , Melyridae , Mordellidae , Nitidulidae and Scarabaeidae.

Mutualism is well known in a few beetles, such as the ambrosia beetle , which partners with fungi to digest the wood of dead trees.

The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition.

After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont.

The fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, digests it, and concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery, so the weevils and the fungus both benefit.

The beetles cannot eat the wood due to toxins, and uses its relationship with fungi to help overcome the defenses of its host tree in order to provide nutrition for their larvae.

Adult diapause is the most common form of diapause in Coleoptera. To endure the period without food often lasting many months adults prepare by accumulating reserves of lipids, glycogen, proteins and other substances needed for resistance to future hazardous changes of environmental conditions.

This diapause is induced by signals heralding the arrival of the unfavourable season; usually the cue is photoperiodic.

Short decreasing day length serves as a signal of approaching winter and induces winter diapause hibernation.

This loss of body fat was a gradual process, occurring in combination with dehydration. All insects are poikilothermic , [] so the ability of a few beetles to live in extreme environments depends on their resilience to unusually high or low temperatures.

The low temperatures experienced by Cucujus clavipes can be survived through their deliberate dehydration in conjunction with the antifreeze proteins.

This concentrates the antifreezes several fold. Conversely, desert dwelling beetles are adapted to tolerate high temperatures.

These beetles also exhibits behavioural adaptions to tolerate the heat: they are able to stand erect on their tarsi to hold their bodies away from the hot ground, seek shade, and turn to face the sun so that only the front parts of their heads are directly exposed.

The fogstand beetle of the Namib Desert , Stenocara gracilipes , is able to collect water from fog , as its elytra have a textured surface combining hydrophilic water-loving bumps and waxy, hydrophobic troughs.

The beetle faces the early morning breeze, holding up its abdomen; droplets condense on the elytra and run along ridges towards their mouthparts.

Similar adaptations are found in several other Namib desert beetles such as Onymacris unguicularis. Some terrestrial beetles that exploit shoreline and floodplain habitats have physiological adaptations for surviving floods.

In the event of flooding, adult beetles may be mobile enough to move away from flooding, but larvae and pupa often cannot.

Adults of Cicindela togata are unable to survive immersion in water, but larvae are able to survive a prolonged period, up to 6 days, of anoxia during floods.

Anoxia tolerance in the larvae may have been sustained by switching to anaerobic metabolic pathways or by reducing metabolic rate.

Many beetle species undertake annual mass movements which are termed as migrations. These include the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus [] and many species of coccinellids.

Several species of dung beetle, especially the sacred scarab, Scarabaeus sacer , were revered in Ancient Egypt. The scarab was of prime significance in the funerary cult of ancient Egypt.

The best-known of these are the Judean LMLK seals , where eight of 21 designs contained scarab beetles, which were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah.

Pliny the Elder discusses beetles in his Natural History , [] describing the stag beetle : "Some insects, for the preservation of their wings, are covered with a erust elytra — the beetle, for instance, the wing of which is peculiarly fine and frail.

To these insects a sting has been denied by Nature; but in one large kind we find horns of a remarkable length, two-pronged at the extremities, and forming pincers, which the animal closes when it is its intention to bite.

He is black, long and has hard wings like a great dung beetle". Many feed on economically important plants and stored plant products, including trees, cereals, tobacco, and dried fruits.

The boll weevil crossed the Rio Grande near Brownsville , Texas , to enter the United States from Mexico around , [] and had reached southeastern Alabama by It remains the most destructive cotton pest in North America.

The bark beetle, elm leaf beetle and the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis [] are among the species that attack elm trees.

Bark beetles Scolytidae carry Dutch elm disease as they move from infected breeding sites to healthy trees.

The disease has devastated elm trees across Europe and North America. Some species of beetle have evolved immunity to insecticides.

For example, the Colorado potato beetle , Leptinotarsa decemlineata , is a destructive pest of potato plants. Its hosts include other members of the Solanaceae , such as nightshade , tomato , eggplant and capsicum , as well as the potato.

Different populations have between them developed resistance to all major classes of insecticide. The death watch beetle , Xestobium rufovillosum Ptinidae , is a serious pest of older wooden buildings in Europe.

It attacks hardwoods such as oak and chestnut , always where some fungal decay has taken or is taking place. The actual introduction of the pest into buildings is thought to take place at the time of construction.

Other pests include the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima , which feeds on young leaves , seedlings and mature coconut trees, causing serious economic damage in the Philippines.

Beetles can be beneficial to human economics by controlling the populations of pests. The larvae and adults of some species of lady beetles Coccinellidae feed on aphids that are pests.

Other lady beetles feed on scale insects , whitefly and mealybugs. For example, the genus Zygogramma is native to North America but has been used to control Parthenium hysterophorus in India and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Russia.

Dung beetles Scarabidae have been successfully used to reduce the populations of pestilent flies, such as Musca vetustissima and Haematobia exigua which are serious pests of cattle in Australia.

The Dermestidae are often used in taxidermy and in the preparation of scientific specimens, to clean soft tissue from bones.

Beetles are the most widely eaten insects, with about species used as food, usually at the larval stage.

Due to their habitat specificity, many species of beetles have been suggested as suitable as indicators, their presence, numbers, or absence providing a measure of habitat quality.

Predatory beetles such as the tiger beetles Cicindelidae have found scientific use as an indicator taxon for measuring regional patterns of biodiversity.

They are suitable for this as their taxonomy is stable; their life history is well described; they are large and simple to observe when visiting a site; they occur around the world in many habitats, with species specialised to particular habitats; and their occurrence by species accurately indicates other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate.

Many beetles have beautiful and durable elytra that have been used as material in arts, with beetlewing the best example.

Whole beetles, either as-is or encased in clear plastic, are made into objects ranging from cheap souvenirs such as key chains to expensive fine-art jewellery.

In parts of Mexico, beetles of the genus Zopherus are made into living brooches by attaching costume jewelry and golden chains, which is made possible by the incredibly hard elytra and sedentary habits of the genus.

Fighting beetles are used for entertainment and gambling. This sport exploits the territorial behavior and mating competition of certain species of large beetles.

In the Chiang Mai district of northern Thailand, male Xylotrupes rhinoceros beetles are caught in the wild and trained for fighting.

Females are held inside a log to stimulate the fighting males with their pheromones. Beetles are sometimes used as instruments: the Onabasulu of Papua New Guinea historically used the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus as a musical instrument by letting the human mouth serve as a variable resonance chamber for the wing vibrations of the live adult beetle.

Some species of beetle are kept as pets , for example diving beetles Dytiscidae may be kept in a domestic fresh water tank. In Japan the practice of keeping horned rhinoceros beetles Dynastinae and stag beetles Lucanidae is particularly popular amongst young boys.

Beetle collecting became extremely popular in the Victorian era. Several coleopteran adaptations have attracted interest in biomimetics with possible commercial applications.

The bombardier beetle 's powerful repellent spray has inspired the development of a fine mist spray technology, claimed to have a low carbon impact compared to aerosol sprays.

Living beetles have been used as cyborgs. A Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded project implanted electrodes into Mecynorhina torquata beetles, allowing them to be remotely controlled via a radio receiver held on its back, as proof-of-concept for surveillance work.

Since beetles form such a large part of the world's biodiversity, their conservation is important, and equally, loss of habitat and biodiversity is essentially certain to impact on beetles.

Many species of beetles have very specific habitats and long life cycles that make them vulnerable. Some species are highly threatened while others are already feared extinct.

In Japan the Genji firefly, Luciola cruciata , is extremely popular, and in South Africa the Addo elephant dung beetle offers promise for broadening ecotourism beyond the big five tourist mammal species.

Popular dislike of pest beetles, too, can be turned into public interest in insects, as can unusual ecological adaptations of species like the fairy shrimp hunting beetle, Cicinis bruchi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Beetle disambiguation. For the genus of moths, see Coeloptera.

For the heated food warming dish, see Chafing dish. Order of insects. For the band, see The Beatles. Further information: Camouflage.

Further information: Mimicry and Aposematism. Further information: Insect thermoregulation and Insect winter ecology.

Main article: Insect migration. Main article: Scarab artifact. Main article: Entomophagy. Main articles: Beetlewing and Live insect jewelry.

Further information: Biomimetics. ZooKeys 88 : 1—

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Although the Volkswagen beetle was mainly the brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche and Adolf Hitler, [27] the idea of a "people's car" is much older than Nazism and has existed since the mass-production of cars was introduced.

In April , Hitler gave the order to Porsche to develop a Volkswagen. Everything had to be designed to ensure parts could be quickly and inexpensively exchanged.

The engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage. Ethylene glycol antifreeze was only just beginning to be used in high-performance liquid-cooled aircraft engines.

In general, water in radiators would freeze unless the vehicle was kept in a heated building overnight or drained and refilled each morning.

The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of Germany through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte savings booklet , [31] at Reichsmark , about the price of a small motorcycle.

The average weekly income was then around 32 RM. Ferdinand Porsche developed the Type 12 , or " Auto für Jedermann " car for everybody for Zündapp in Porsche already preferred the flat-four engine , and selected a swing axle rear suspension invented by Edmund Rumpler , while Zündapp insisted on a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine.

In three prototypes were running; [33] all were lost during World War II , the last in a bombing raid in Stuttgart in The Type 32 was similar in design to the Type 12, but it had a flat-four engine.

NSU discontinued car manufacturing, and the Type 32 was abandoned at the prototype stage. In October , the first two Type prototypes, known as cars V1 , a sedan, and V2 , a convertible V for Versuchswagen , or "test car" , were ready.

All cars had the distinctive round shape and the air-cooled , rear-mounted engine. Included in this batch was a rollback soft top called the Cabrio Limousine.

The car was designed to be as simple as possible mechanically. The suspension design used compact torsion bars instead of coil or leaf springs.

The Beetle is nearly airtight and will briefly float. On 26 May , Hitler laid the cornerstone for the Volkswagen factory in Fallersleben.

The model village of Stadt des KdF-Wagens was created near Fallersleben in Lower Saxony in for the benefit of the workers at the newly built factory.

Volkswagen had only just started small scale production, building about Beetles, when civilian production was halted at the start of the war.

Hitler was given the very first convertible Beetle built in A handful of KdF-Wagen were produced, primarily for the Nazi elite, from to , as the Typ During World War II, the factory primarily built the Kübelwagen Typ 82 , the Schwimmwagen Typ , and a handful of other light wheeled vehicles , all mechanically derived from the Typ 1, for the Wehrmacht.

These included several hundred Kommandeurswagen Typ 87 , with a Typ 1 Beetle body mounted on the rugged chassis of the four-wheel drive Typ 86 Kübelwagen prototype, and fitted with portal axle and a Schwimmwagen drive train , with wider fenders.

Much of the essential equipment had already been moved to underground bunkers for protection, which let production resume quickly after hostilities ended.

Due to gasoline shortages late in the war, a few " Holzbrenner " Beetles were built, powered by pyrolysis gas producers located under the front hood.

In occupied Germany, the Allies followed the Morgenthau plan to remove all German war potential by complete or partial pastoralization.

As part of this, in the Industrial plans for Germany , the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain were set out.

Mass production of civilian VW cars did not start until post-war occupation. The Volkswagen factory was handed over by the Americans to British control in ; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Britain.

In March , Herbert Hoover helped change policy by stating. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a " pastoral state ".

It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,, people out of it. Hirst was ordered to take control of the heavily bombed factory, which the Americans had captured.

His first task was to remove an unexploded bomb that had fallen through the roof and lodged itself between some pieces of irreplaceable production equipment; if the bomb had exploded, the Beetle's fate would have been sealed.

After initially building mostly Beetles for the British military, in production transitioned to purely civilian Beetles, for the first time featuring chromed bumpers, hubcaps, and body and running board trim.

Following the British Army-led restart of production and Hirst's establishment of sales network and exports to Netherlands, former Opel manager and formerly a detractor of the Volkswagen Heinz Nordhoff was appointed director of the Volkswagen factory in The engine fires up immediately without a choke.

It has tolerable road-handling and is economical to maintain. Although a small car, the engine has great elasticity and gave the feeling of better output than its small nominal size.

There were other, less-numerous models, as well. The Hebmüller cabriolet officially Type 14A , a sporty two-seater, was built between and ; it numbered The Type 18A , a fixed-top cabriolet, was produced by Austro-Tatra as a police and fire unit; were assembled between January and March On 17 February Beetle No.

Though extremely successful in the s, experiencing its greatest sales growth in North America between and , the Beetle was increasingly faced with stiff competition from more modern designs globally.

The Japanese had refined rear-wheel-drive, water-cooled, front-engine, small cars including the Datsun and Toyota Corona , whose sales in the North American market grew rapidly at the expense of Volkswagen in the late s.

Honda introduced the N , based on the space-efficient transverse-engine, front-wheel-drive layout of the original Austin Mini , to the North American market in late , and upgraded the model to the Honda Civic in The Japanese "big three" would soon dominate compact auto sales in North America.

In Ford introduced its Pinto , which had some market impact as a low cost alternative in the wake of the drop of the US Dollar against the Deutsche Mark that same year.

As the s came to a close, Volkswagen faced increasingly stiff competition from European cars as well. The Beetle was faced with competition from new designs like the Fiat and Renault 5 , and more robust designs based on the Austin Mini layout such as the Superminis.

German competitors, Ford and Opel also enjoyed strong sales of modern smaller cars like the Ford Escort and Opel Kadett. Volkswagen's attempts to boost the power of their air-cooled motor to meet the demands of higher highway speeds in the late s, then comply with new pollution control regulations, caused problems for reliability and fuel efficiency that impaired the reputation of the aging design.

Safety issues with the Beetle came under increasing scrutiny, culminating in the release of a rather scathing report. None of these models, aimed at more upscale markets, achieved the level of success of the Beetle.

The over-reliance on a single model, now in decline, meant that Volkswagen was in financial crisis by It needed German government funding to produce the Beetle's replacement.

Production lines at Wolfsburg switched to the new water-cooled, front-engined, front-wheel-drive Golf designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in , sold in North America at the time as the "Rabbit".

The Golf eventually became Volkswagen's most successful model since the Beetle. It was periodically redesigned over its lifetime, with only a few components carried over between generations, entering its seventh generation in ; the Beetle had only minor refinements of its original design.

The Golf did not kill Beetle production, nor did the smaller Polo which was launched a year later. Production of the Beetle continued in smaller numbers at other German factories until 19 January , when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico: markets where low operating cost was an important factor.

After this shift in production, sales in Europe did not stop, but became very low. Beetle sedans were produced for U.

The last Beetle was produced in Puebla , Mexico, in July Production in Brazil ended in , then started again in and continued until The Beetle outlasted most other cars which had adopted the rear-engine, air-cooled layout such as those by Subaru , Fiat , and General Motors.

Porsche's series which originally used some Volkswagen-sourced parts, continued to use the classic rear-engine layout which later became water cooled in the Porsche series, which remains competitive in the third decade of the 21st century.

By , over 21 million Type 1s had been produced, but by , annual production had dropped to 30, from a peak of 1.

Each car included the 1. A mariachi band serenaded production of the last car. In Mexico, there was an advertising campaign as a goodbye for the Beetle.

In one of the ads was a very small parking space on the street, and many big cars tried to use it, but could not. Another depicted the rear end of a Beetle the year Volkswagen was established in Mexico in the left side of the ad, reading " Erase una vez Other ads also had the same nostalgic tone.

In , Volkswagen prototyped a 1. Volkswagen made only two of these naturally aspirated, air-cooled boxer diesel engines, and installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.

The Beetle featured a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder, boxer engine in a two-door bodywork featuring a flat front windscreen, accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat—and offering a coefficient of drag of 0.

The bodywork attached with eighteen bolts to its nearly flat platform chassis which featured a central structural tunnel.

Front and rear suspension featured torsion bars along with front stabilizer bar—providing independent suspension at all wheels.

Certain initial features were subsequently revised, including mechanical drum brakes, split-window rear windows, mechanical direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox.

Other features, including its distinctive overall shape, endured. In fact, the Beetle was prized for its seemingly unchanged appearance and "marketed to American consumers as the anti-GM and Ford: 'We do not believe in planned obsolescence.

We don't change a car for the sake of change. Its engine, transmission, and cylinder heads were constructed of light alloy.

An engine oil cooler located in the engine fan's shroud ensured optimal engine operating temperature and long engine life, optimized by a thermostat that bypassed the oil cooler when the engine was cold.

Later models featured an automatic choke. Engine intake air passed through a metallic filter, while heavier particles were captured by an oil bath.

After , steering featured a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Indicative of the car's utilitarian design, the interior featured painted metal surfaces, a metal dash consolidating instruments in a single, circular binnacle , adjustable front seats, a fold-down rear seat, optional swing-out rear windows, front windows with pivoting vent windows, heating via air-to-air exchange manifolds operating off the engine's heat, and a windshield washer system that eschewed the complexity and cost of an additional electric pump and instead received its pressurization from the car's spare tire located in the front luggage compartment which was accordingly overinflated to accommodate the washer function.

Throughout its production, VW marketed the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. From and almost exclusively in Europe , [63] VW offered an optional version of the Saxomat semi-automatic transmission : a regular 4-speed manual transaxle coupled to an electromagnetic clutch with a centrifugal clutch used for idle.

Subsequently, beginning in in Europe and in the United States , VW offered an optional semi-automatic transmission marketed as Automatic Stick Shift and also called AutoStick , [ citation needed ] which was a 3-speed manual coupled to an electro-pneumatic clutch and torque converter.

It was in that Wilhelm Karmann first bought a VW Beetle sedan and converted it into a four-seated convertible. The convertible was more than a Beetle with a folding top.

To compensate for the strength lost in removing the roof, the sills were reinforced with welded U-channel rails, a transverse beam was fitted below the front edge of the rear seat cushion, and the side cowl-panels below the instrument panel were double-wall.

In addition, the lower corners of the door apertures had welded-in curved gussets, and the doors had secondary alignment wedges at the B-pillar.

The top was cabriolet-style with a full inner headliner hiding the folding mechanism and crossbars. The rear window was tempered safety glass, and after , heated.

Due to the thickness of the top, it remained quite tall when folded. To enable the driver to see over the lowered top, the inside rearview was mounted on an offset pivot.

The convertible was generally more lavishly equipped than the sedan with dual rear ashtrays, twin map pockets, a visor vanity mirror on the passenger side, rear stone shields, and through , wheel trim rings.

Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of After a number of stylistic and technical alterations made to the Karmann cabriolet, [66] corresponding to the many changes VW made to the Beetle throughout its history , the last of , cabriolets came off the production line on 10 January During this period, myriad changes were made throughout the vehicle beginning with the availability of hydraulic brakes and a folding fabric sunroof in The rear window of the VW Beetle evolved from a divided or "split" oval, to a singular oval.

The change occurred between October and March The brake light function was transferred to new heart-shaped lamps located in the top of the taillight housings.

In , the separate brake lights were discontinued and were combined into a new larger taillight housing. The traditional VW semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicator lamps for North America.

For , the Beetle received what would become one of its more distinctive features, a set of twin chrome tailpipes.

Models for North America gained taller bumper guards and tubular overrider bars. For , the Beetle received a revised instrument panel, and a larger rectangular rear window replaced the previous oval design.

For , significant technical advances occurred in the form of a new engine and transmission. The single-barrel Solex carburetor received an electric automatic choke and the transmission was now synchronized on all forward gears.

The traditional semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicators worldwide. For , the Beetle received a mechanical fuel level gauge in place of the former fuel tap.

The Standard model continued without a gas gauge until the end of the model year. At the rear, larger tail lights were introduced incorporating a separate amber turn signal section to meet new European standards these turn signals remained red in the US market until The former hand-pump style windscreen washer was replaced by a new design using compressed air.

The largest change to date for the Beetle was in the majority of the body stampings were revised, which allowed for significantly larger windows.

The result was a more open, airy, modern look. Models so equipped carried a "" badge on the engine lid. The cc engine was standard for North America.

North America received the engine as standard equipment, but did not receive front disc brakes. These models were identified by a "Volkswagen" badge on the engine lid.

The rear suspension was significantly revised and included a widened track, softer torsion bars and the addition of a unique Z-configuration equalizing torsion spring.

The clutch disc also increased in size and changes were made to the flywheel. New equipment included a driver's armrest on the door and locking buttons on both doors.

Safety improvements included two-speed windscreen wipers , reversing lights in some markets , and a driver's side mirror. In accord with the newly enacted US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , North American models received a dual-circuit brake system, the clear glass headlamp covers were deleted; the headlamps were brought forward to the leading edge of the front fenders, and the sealed-beam units were exposed and surrounded by chrome bezels.

In the rest of the world markets the model retained the older headlights. Another oddity of the North American market Beetle is the rear bumper overriders towel rails — the overriders have a different shape than the older models besides the one-year only engine decklid.

The most noticeable of which were the new larger, higher mounted C-section bumpers. At the rear, new larger taillamps were adopted and were able to accommodate reversing lamps, which were previously separate bumper-mounted units.

Beetles worldwide received the '67 North American style vertical headlamp placement, but with replaceable-bulb headlamps compliant with ECE regulations rather than the US sealed beams.

Other improvements were a new outside gas filler with spring-loaded flap, eliminating the need to open the trunk to refuel.

The fuel gauge was integrated with the speedometer and was now electrically actuated rather than cable-operated. A number of safety improvements were made in order to comply with new American safety regulations: these included trigger-operated outside door handles, a secondary front hood latch, collapsing steering column, soft vent window latches, rotary glove compartment latch and instrument panel knobs labeled with pictographs.

US models received a padded instrument panel that was optional in other markets. To meet North American head restraint requirements, VW developed the industry's first high-back bucket seat.

A new 3-speed semi-automatic transmission with torque converter and vacuum-operated clutch became available mid-production year.

The semi-automatic models received a vastly improved semi-trailing-arm rear suspension also known as "independent rear suspension" although the earlier swing axle Beetles were also independent and eliminated the need for the equalizing torsion spring.

This new rear suspension layout would eventually become an option on later models. Beetles equipped with the automatic were identified with a "VW Automatic" badge on the engine lid and a matching decal in the rear window.

For , the only exterior change was the fuel filler flap no longer had a finger indentation due to a new interior-mounted fuel door release.

In other markets, manual transmission models retained a swing axle independent suspension which would continue until the end of German Beetle production.

In , a new "L" Luxus Package was introduced including, among other items, twin map pockets, dual rear ashtrays, full carpeting, a passenger-side visor vanity mirror, and rubber bumper moldings.

There were two Beetles for the first time in , the familiar standard Beetle and a new, larger version, different from the windscreen forward.

All Beetles received an engine upgrade: the optional cc engine was replaced by a cc with twin-port cylinder heads and a larger, relocated oil cooler.

The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly at the driver and passenger.

For the first time the system was a flow-through design with crescent-shaped air exits fitted behind the rear quarter windows.

Airflow could be increased via an optional 2-speed fan. The standard Beetle was now badged as the VW ; when equipped with the engine, it was badged S, to avoided confusion with the Type 3, which wore VW badges.

The new suspension layout allowed the spare tire to be positioned flat under the trunk floor. Although the car had to be lengthened slightly to accomplish this, it allowed a reduction in turning radius.

To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel [ clarification needed ] was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward.

From the windscreen back the big Beetle was identical to its smaller progenitor, except for having the also new semi-trailing arm rear suspension as standard equipment.

Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package. The convertible was now based on the body. While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle.

With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price.

An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced. The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf.

A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.

In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator.

The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels.

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App-Connect allows you to easily display select smartphone apps on the infotainment touchscreen system using either MirrorLink, Android Auto and Apple Carplay.

The Volkswagen Beetle is made ground up to be a solid car that keeps you and your passengers safe at all times. Our new Driver Alert System gives early warning of when you need to take a break on long and tiring journeys, making driving safer.

Four airbags combine with the seat belts to reduce the risk of severe head and chest injuries in collisions with a certain severity.

Our Electronic Stability Control detects critical situations at an early stage, and takes action to stop skidding and help bring your car safely back under control.

With the combination of a fuel sipping engine and a smooth operating transmission, the Beetle offers remarkable efficiency.

When you drive one of our TSI cars you don't have to choose between performance and economy. TSI engines offer an enjoyable and involving drive, while cutting fuel consumption.

The Direct Shift Gearbox DSG provides the sportiness of a manual gear shift and, at the same time, the easy handling of an automatic transmission.

Make yourself comfortable in your Volkswagen Beetle. Its extensive equipment, the sure footed handling and many convenient extras ensure that you can enjoy every day with it in a very relaxed way.

Whether you prefer sporty or comfortable, the Beetle is suitable for both. Our leather interior in the Beetle Sport provides good lateral support in all driving situations.

The 2-zone 'Climatronic' in the Beetle Sport automatically regulates the air conditioning in the interior of the vehicle.

All Volkswagen cars registered from the 1st of January are eligible, regardless of model. All new Volkswagen passenger vehicles purchased from an authorised Volkswagen Dealership in Malaysia qualify.

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To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel [ clarification needed ] was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward. Graz: Https://gswitch.co/casino-online-schweiz/spielsucht-eichstgtt.php. Golf I. The abdomen is the section behind the metathorax, made up of a series of rings, each with a hole for breathing and respiration, called a spiraclecomposing three Bettle segmented sclerites: the Bettle, pleura, and the sternum. Although designed in the s, due to World War IIcivilian Beetles only began to be produced in significant numbers by the end of the s. Retrieved February 13, Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of

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